||Nine Events of Instruction
||Gagne, Briggs and Wager
||Based on information processing
**Although it is defined by the authors to be based on information
processing many of the elements are behavioral
– reinforcement, presenting stimulus material, eliciting performance
||Purpose of instruction is to provide
support to the processes of learning. Instruction consists of a set of
events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes
of learning. The events of instruction must be deliberately arranged by
an instructional designer or teacher.
suggests the line of thought that will presumably lead to the desired "combining"
of subordinate concepts and rules to form the new to-be-learned rule; stimulating
a direction of thought and thus helping to keep the learner on track
||Learning is based on the information
processing model. Goal is to stimulate internal information processes.
Not all of the events are provided for in every lesson. Events do not always
occur in the order specified.
|Events of Instruction and their
relation to the processes of learning
Gain attention – reception of patterns of neural impulses
Inform learner of the objective – activate executive control processes
Stimulate recall of pre-requisite learning – retrieval of prior learning
to working memory – activate appropriate schema
Present the stimulus material – emphasize features for selective perception
Provide learning guidance – semantic encoding and cues for retrieval
Elicit performance – activate response organization through overt behavior
Provide feedback about performance correctness – establishing reinforcement
Assess the performance, make sure it accurately reflects the objective
under the stated conditions – activate retrieval; make reinforcement possible
Enhance retention and transfer – provide cues and strategies for retrieval
||Based on reductionist model of learning.
Behaviors aren't always predictable – can't know all the variables